Arctic warning: As the system changes, we must adjust our science
David Spratt, ReNewEconomy, 12 September 2012
The Arctic sea-ice big melt of 2012 “has taken us by surprise and we must adjust our understanding of the system and we must adjust our science and we must adjust our feelings for the nature around us”, according to Kim Holmen, Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) international director.

Ice loss shifts Arctic cycles
Quirin Schiermeier, Nature News, 12 September 2012
Record shrinkage confounds models and portends atmospheric and ecological change.

‘Astonishing’ Ice Melt May Lead to More Extreme Winters
Climate Central, September 12, 2012
The record loss of Arctic sea ice this summer will echo throughout the weather patterns affecting the U.S. and Europe this winter, climate scientists said on Wednesday, since added heat in the Arctic influences the jet stream and may make extreme weather and climate events more likely.
Arctic sea ice melt ‘may bring harsh winter to Europe’

Arctic melt down: Scientists Speak Out (audio)

EcoShock, 10 September 2012
In 2012, the Arctic Sea Ice hit a stunning new record low. Rutgers scientist Jennifer Francis explains how this changes weather for billions of people in the Northern Hemisphere. Plus the Director of the Snow and Ice Data Center, Mark Serreze on record and what it means, and analysis from polar scientist Jennifer Bitz, U of Washington. In depth, direct from top scientists. Radio Ecoshock 120912 1 hour.

The staggering decline of sea ice at the frontline of climate change
John Vidal, Guardian, 14 September 2012
Scientists on board Greenpeace’s vessel exploring the minimum extent of the ice cap are shocked at the speed of the melt.

How Fast Can Ice Sheets Respond to Climate Change?
Science Daily, Sept 13, 2012
A new Arctic study in the journal Science is helping to unravel an important mystery surrounding climate change: How quickly glaciers can melt and grow in response to shifts in temperature.
New Study Shows How Fast Ice Sheets Can Change

History of sea ice in the Arctic (pdf)
Polyak, Alley et al, QSR29: 1757-1778 (2010)
Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice… consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most wide-spread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate.

Significant contribution to climate warming from the permafrost carbon feedback
Andrew H. MacDougall, Christopher A. Avis & Andrew J. WeaverNature Geoscience, 9 September 2012
Permafrost soils contain an estimated 1,700 Pg of carbon, almost twice the present atmospheric carbon pool1. As permafrost soils thaw owing to climate warming, respiration of organic matter within these soils will transfer carbon to the atmosphere, potentially leading to a positive feedback.

Limitations of a coupled regional climate model in the reproduction of the observed Arctic sea-ice retreat

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